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An array is a special variable, which can hold more than one value at a time.

Array Syntax: $arrayName = array ("value1","value2","value3");

In PHP, there are three types of arrays:

  • Indexed arrays or Numeric arrays - Arrays with numeric index
  • Associative arrays - Arrays with named keys
  • Multidimensional arrays - Arrays containing one or more arrays

1) array_shift Function:

The array_shift function removes the first element of an array from the array and stores it in the receiving variable.

<?php
$myarray = array("Apples", "Oranges", "Pears");
$fruit = array_shift($myarray);  
echo $fruit; // Apples
print_r($myarray);  // Oranges and Pears will be displayed without Apples
?>

2) array_unshift Function:

Prepend one or more elements to the beginning of an array.

<?php
$queue = array("orange", "banana");
array_unshift($queue, "apple", "raspberry");
print_r($queue);
?>

3) array_push Function:

Push one or more elements onto the end of array.

<?php
$stack = array("orange", "banana");
array_push($stack, "apple", "raspberry");
print_r($stack);
?>

4) array_pop Function:

Pop the element off the end of array.

<?php
$stack = array("orange", "banana", "apple", "raspberry");
$fruit = array_pop($stack);
print_r($stack);
?>

5) array_combine Function:

Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its values.

<?php
$a = array('green', 'red', 'yellow');
$b = array('avocado', 'apple', 'banana');
$c = array_combine($a, $b);
print_r($c);
?>

6) array_unique Function:

Removes duplicate values from an array.

<?php
$input = array("a" => "green", "red", "b" => "green", "blue", "red");
$result = array_unique($input);
print_r($result);
?>

7) array_merge Function:

Merge one or more arrays.

<?php
$array1 = array("color" => "red", 2, 4);
$array2 = array("a", "b", "color" => "green", "shape" => "trapezoid", 4);
$result = array_merge($array1, $array2);
print_r($result);
?>

8) Arrays Sort Functions:

sort() - sort arrays in ascending order
rsort() - sort arrays in descending order
asort() - sort associative arrays in ascending order, according to the value
ksort() - sort associative arrays in ascending order, according to the key
arsort() - sort associative arrays in descending order, according to the value
krsort() - sort associative arrays in descending order, according to the key

9) array_replace Function:

Replaces elements from passed arrays into the first array

<?php
$base = array("orange", "banana", "apple", "raspberry");
$replacements = array(0 => "pineapple", 4 => "cherry");
$replacements2 = array(0 => "grape");
$basket = array_replace($base, $replacements, $replacements2);
print_r($basket);
?>

10) array_reverse Function:

Return an array with elements in reverse order

<?php
$input  = array("php", 4.0, array("green", "red"));
$reversed = array_reverse($input);
$preserved = array_reverse($input, true);
print_r($input);
print_r($reversed);
print_r($preserved);
?>

11) array_search Function:

Searches the array for a given value and returns the first corresponding key if successful

<?php
$array = array(0 => 'blue', 1 => 'red', 2 => 'green', 3 => 'red');
$key = array_search('green', $array); // $key = 2;
$key = array_search('red', $array);   // $key = 1;
?>

12) array key function:

array_keys — Return all the keys or a subset of the keys of an array
array_key_exists — Checks if the given key or index exists in the array

<?php
$search_array = array('first' => 1, 'second' => 4);
if (array_key_exists('first', $search_array)) {
echo "The 'first' element is in the array";
}
?>

array_key_first — Gets the first key of an array
array_key_last — Gets the last key of an array

13) array_rand Function:

Pick one or more random keys out of an array

<?php
$input = array("Neo", "Morpheus", "Trinity", "Cypher", "Tank");
$rand_keys = array_rand($input, 2);
echo $input[$rand_keys[0]] . "\n";
echo $input[$rand_keys[1]] . "\n";
?>

14) array_sum Function:

Calculate the sum of values in an array
Returns the sum of values as an integer or float; 0 if the array is empty.

<?php
$a = array(2, 4, 6, 8);
echo "sum(a) = " . array_sum($a) . "\n";
$b = array("a" => 1.2, "b" => 2.3, "c" => 3.4);
echo "sum(b) = " . array_sum($b) . "\n";
?>

Traits is look like of class. it contain group of methods you want to use in another class.

Like abstract class we can't create object of traits but we can use it in another class.

So it's solve multiple inheritance problem in PHP.

It's lot of look like interface, but diffrent is in interface we can only define method/function but we can't implement but in traits we can do it.

Create Table

  • CREATE TABLE MyGuests(id INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, firstname VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL, lastname VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL, email VARCHAR(50))

Primary Key

  • Primary key cannot have a NULL value.
  • Each table can have only one primary key.
  • By default, Primary key is clustered index and data in the database table is physically organized in the sequence of clustered index.
  • Where clause can be applied to a single row, where as Having clause is applied to the whole group.
  • Having clause is used, when we want to use select query to filter data from a table based on a aggregate condition

JOIN or INNER JOIN, LEFT JOIN, RIGHT JOIN, FULL JOIN, SELF JOIN, CROSS JOIN, UNION JOIN. These are all

CASE, IF, IFNULL is control flow operators

GROUP BY, HAVING is sorting data operators

ORDER BY is sorting data operators

WHERE, AND, OR, IN, NOT IN, BETWEEN, LIMIT, LIKE are filter data operators

 

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